Glutathione is a powerful antioxidant that plays a crucial role in maintaining healthy skin. It neutralizes free radicals, regulates melanin synthesis, and supports the immune system. In this section, we will explore how glutathione works for the skin.

Scavenging Free Radicals

Free radicals are unstable molecules that can damage cells and accelerate aging. They are produced by a variety of sources, including UV radiation, pollution, and stress. Glutathione helps to scavenge free radicals by donating an electron to stabilize them. This prevents oxidative damage and protects the skin from premature aging.

Regulating Melanin Synthesis

Melanin is the pigment that gives skin, hair, and eyes color. Melanocytes produce it in response to UV radiation. However, overproduction of melanin can lead to hyperpigmentation and uneven skin tone. Glutathione helps regulate melanin synthesis by inhibiting the activity of tyrosinase, an enzyme involved in melanin production. This can help to reduce the appearance of dark spots and promote a more even complexion.

Glutathione is a powerful antioxidant that can help protect the skin from oxidative damage, regulate melanin synthesis, and support the immune system. Incorporating glutathione-rich foods into your diet or taking glutathione supplements may help to promote healthy, radiant skin.

What Makes Skin Look Aged?

As we age, our skin undergoes a variety of changes that contribute to its aged appearance [1].

Fat Loss

Subcutaneous fat, which helps to give skin a plump and youthful appearance, diminishes significantly as we age. Older individuals may have up to 65 percent less facial fat compared to their younger selves, which can lead to sagging and a hollowed appearance as the skin loses its underlying support structure.

Thinning Skin

One of the primary factors is the thinning of the skin. On average, skin thickness decreases by about 6.4 percent every decade. This reduction in thickness can lead to a more fragile appearance and a greater susceptibility to damage from external factors.

Slowing of Cell Turnover Rate

Another significant change is the rate at which skin cells renew themselves. During our teens and twenties, the skin is quite adept at regenerating, with a turnover rate as quick as every two weeks. However, as we advance in age, this process slows dramatically. By the time we reach our senior years, skin cell turnover can be as infrequent as once every three months. This slower rate of renewal can result in a duller complexion and the accumulation of dead skin cells on the surface.

Less Active Melanocytes

Pigmentation cells, known as melanocytes, also become less active with age. The activity of these cells can decrease by 8 to 20 percent per decade, leading to an uneven skin tone and the development of age spots. This uneven pigmentation is a hallmark of aged skin.

Reduced Sebum Production

The production of sebum, the oily substance that helps to keep the skin moisturized and luminous, also declines with age. In older women, sebum production can decrease by as much as 60 percent. This reduction can leave the skin dry, lackluster, and more prone to developing fine lines and wrinkles.

Decline in Collagen and Elastin

Lastly, the proteins that provide skin with its structure and elasticity, collagen and elastin, also decrease as we age. Collagen levels drop approximately 1 percent each year, and by the age of 40, the production of elastin slows down significantly. This loss affects the skin’s firmness and its ability to bounce back, leading to the formation of wrinkles and sagging.

All these factors combined—loss of facial fat, the thinning of the skin, reduced cell turnover, less active pigment cells, decreased sebum production, and the decline in collagen and elastin—contribute to the characteristic signs of aged skin, including wrinkles, sagging, dryness, and an uneven skin tone.

The Biggest Factor In The Cause of Skin Aging: UV Exposure

Ultraviolet (UV) rays from the sun are widely recognized as the most significant environmental factor in the premature aging of the skin, a process known as photoaging. These rays penetrate the skin layers, causing damage that accumulates over time. UV radiation is composed of two main types of rays that reach the earth’s surface: UVA and UVB. UVA rays are not absorbed by the ozone layer and penetrate deep into the skin, leading to long-term damage such as wrinkles and loss of elasticity. They are responsible for the breakdown of collagen fibers, which are crucial for the skin’s structural integrity, and they accelerate the degradation of elastin, which gives skin its elastic quality. This results in the skin becoming less resilient and more prone to sagging and wrinkling.

UVB rays, on the other hand, are partially absorbed by the ozone layer but are more intense than UVA rays. They primarily affect the outermost layers of the skin, causing sunburns and playing a significant role in the development of skin cancer. Both UVA and UVB rays can also cause mutations in the DNA of skin cells, which can lead to premature aging and cancer. Moreover, UV exposure can lead to the formation of free radicals—unstable oxygen molecules that steal electrons from other molecules, causing a chain reaction of damage to the skin’s cells and its support structure.

The visible signs of this photoaging include not only wrinkles and sagging but also a leathery texture, hyperpigmentation, and a sallow, uneven complexion. Unlike natural aging, which is a gradual process influenced by genetics and time, photoaging can occur at an accelerated rate, with the extent of skin damage being directly related to the cumulative amount of UV exposure and the skin’s pigment protection. This is why sun protection, through the use of broad-spectrum sunscreens, protective clothing, and seeking shade, is paramount in any skincare regimen aimed at minimizing the aging effects of the sun.

How Glutathione Works On Skin Aging

Glutathione, a potent antioxidant, plays an essential role in maintaining the skin’s health, particularly when it comes to protection against the sun’s harmful UV rays. Studies have shown that when skin cells are stripped of glutathione and then subjected to UVA and UVB radiation—the former associated with aging and the latter with sunburn—these cells become more vulnerable to damage. This suggests that glutathione acts as a critical defensive mechanism against the harmful effects of sunlight, which can lead to skin cancer and signs of aging.

Glutathione Defends Against UV Exposure

In experiments with hairless mice, exposure to UV light resulted in a significant reduction of glutathione levels within their skin cells, indicating that glutathione is actively utilized when the skin is exposed to sunlight [2].

While it’s not definitively proven that boosting glutathione levels naturally can prevent sun-induced skin aging or cancer, it stands to reason that a higher glutathione presence could enhance the skin’s defense system. Supplemental glutathione, along with other antioxidants, has been shown to not only protect the skin but also improve its appearance, restoring some of its youthful qualities. Although it cannot reverse aging entirely, it can mitigate further damage.

Skin Brightening and Lightening

Glutathione also contributes to skin brightening and smoothing by addressing redness and age spots, which are often the result of sun exposure. The skin darkens or reddens as a protective measure through the production of melanin by melanocytes. This pigment absorbs UV light, attempting to shield the skin from further damage.

However, this response is not immediate and sometimes occurs after damage has been initiated. With repeated sun exposure, melanin can accumulate and lead to the formation of freckles and age spots. Glutathione intervenes by inhibiting tyrosinase, the enzyme responsible for melanin production, and by converting existing melanin to a lighter pigment, thus reducing the visibility of age spots.

The use of glutathione in treating hyperpigmentation is gaining popularity, with various methods of administration such as intravenous, oral, and topical applications. Studies have supported its efficacy; for instance, a study in Thailand found that women taking oral glutathione supplements experienced reduced melanin levels, less wrinkling, and improved skin elasticity over twelve weeks [3].

Read more about glutathione for skin lightening and brightening.

Another study in Japan demonstrated that applying glutathione lotion to the skin significantly decreased melanin and improved overall skin quality. These findings suggest that glutathione can make a noticeable difference in the health and appearance of the skin, even though oral supplements are not the most efficiently absorbed form of this antioxidant [4].

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AUTHOR

Ann Bertholf

Ann is a skincare geek, product tester and ingredient sleuth. She looks past the marketing hype and searches for effective, evidence based ingredients and formulations. She is a writer and cat mom.

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